“Letter Spacing (also known as char­ac­ter spac­ing or track­ing) is the ad­just­ment of the hor­i­zon­tal white space be­tween the let­ters in a block of text.”

(Jan. Tschichold, 1991)

“Existe o espaço ocupado pela letra e o espaço criado em torno dela.”

(Pag. 84, Ellen Lupton , 2006)

“If you use para­graph and char­ac­ter styles to make a style with all caps or small caps, in­clude let­terspac­ing as part of the style definition.”

(Pag 193, Kate Clair, 2005)

“If there is too much or too little space between the forms, the positions and shapes of strokes are confused with one another and the letter is less easy to identify quickly.”

(Pag 192, Kate Clair, 2005)

“Low­er­case let­ters don’t or­di­nar­ily need let­terspac­ing. Nor do cap­i­tal let­ters when they ap­pear at the be­gin­ning of a word or sen­tence, be­cause they’re de­signed to fit cor­rectly next to low­er­case let­ters. But when you use cap­i­tal let­ters to­gether, that spac­ing looks too tight.”

(Jan. Tschichold, 1991)

“(…..) will of­ten add let­terspac­ing to low­er­case text smaller than 10 point to keep the spaces be­tween let­ters dis­tinct. Sim­i­larly, ty­pog­ra­phers will of­ten re­move let­terspac­ing from low­er­case text used at larger sizes (headlines).”

“(….) tightly packed letters meld into visual combinations are not easily recognize making the words impossible to discern”

(Jan. Tschichold, 1991)

“(….)type set flush left usually assumes proportional letters spacing and word spacing according to the predetermined font characteristics. Forcing text into a justified setting, where both margins are even, causes uneven spacing, especially between words, making it more difficult to read.”

(Pag.192, Kate Clair, 2005)

“When several lines of type in a paragraph have large word space that align vertically throughout the text, the resulting large background space became dominant “rivers” of white distracting from overall legibility”

(Pag.192,193, Kate Clair, 2005)

“A utilização de massas de espaço para isolar uma palavra oferece um sinal de advertência. Esta abordagem é especialmente eficaz para atrair a atenção do leitor dentro do caos visual”

“(….)the aesthetic balance is achieved by consideration to comfortable letter spacing and word spacing”

(Kate Clair, 2005)

(March Marion, 1988)


“Disposição harmónica das partes de uma página no seu conjunto; o equilíbrio pode ser: simétrico (com distribuição de grupos de brancos e manchas em partes iguais nos dois lados da página ou impressão), assimétrico (quando uma das partes está mais sobrecarregada do que a outra, embora mantendo a harmonia) e livre, quando a disposição das manchas e brancos não se sujeita às regras do equilíbrio, mas toma em linha de conta as normas tipográficas de distribuição do texto e brancos”

(Maria Faria, Maria Perição, pag. 481, Dicionário do Livro, 2008)

“A primary goal is to avoid wide variations in the text color and to strive for an even consistent quality avoiding the slipshod appearance associated with a lack of typesetting expertise and practice.”

(Jan. Tschichold, 1991)

“(….) the best solution to any design problem involves so many uncontrolled variables that the designer must finally make a decision based on the desired compositional aesthetic.”

(Kate Clair, 2005)


Faria Isabel Maria, Perição Graça Maria: Dicionário do Livro, da escrita do livro eletrónico, Almedina, SA, Edição, 2008

Lupton Ellen, Stirlarsky Andre: Pensar com Tipos. Cosac Naiky edition, 2006

Tschichold Jan: The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Original edition, 1991

March Marion: Creative Typography. Design manuals, 1988

Clair Kate: A typographic workbook: a primer to history, techniques, and artistry. Cynthia Busic-snyder, 2005

Mariana Pinhal Turma B



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