Space in typography is like time in music. It is infinitely divisible, but a few proportional intervals can be much more useful than a limitless choice of arbitrary quantities. (Robert Bringhurst, 2002 : 36)

Espaço: Peça metálica inferior ao quadratim (de que é submúltiplo), mais baixa do que as letras e que serve para separar entre si as palavras e as letras; encontra-se nos caixotins correspondentes da caixa; o número de pontos do espaço varia de acordo com os corpos • intervalo que separa as palavras manuscritas ou impressas • lugar em branco entre letras ou palavras produzido pelos claros. (Maria Faria e Maria Perdição, 2008 : 495)

Each letterform is made up of positive and negative shapes. The strokes of the letterform are the positive shapes (sometimes just called forms), and the spatial areas created and shaped by the letterform are the negative shapes (or counter-forms). The term counterform includes counters, the shapes defined within the forms, as well as the negative forms created between adjacent letterforms. The negative forms are as important as the positive forms (…). (Robin Landa, 2001 : 48)

And color depends on four things: the design of the type, the spacing between the letters, the spacing between words, and the spacing between lines. None is independent of the others. (Robert Bringhurst, 2002 : 25)

Vertical space is metered in a different way. You must choose not only the overall measure – the depth of the column or page – but also a basic rhythmical unit. This unit is the leading, wich is the distance from one baseline to the next. (Robert Bringhurst, 2002 : 36)

A short burst of advertising copy or a little might be set with negative leading (18/15, for example), so long the ascenders and descenders don’t collide.

Continuous text is very rarely set with negative leading, and only a few read well when set solid. Most text requires positive leading. (…) Longer measures need more lead than short ones. Dark faces need more lead than short ones. Large-bodied faces need more lead than smaller bodied ones.

(…)Extra leading is also generally wellcome where the text is thickened by superscripts, subscripts, mathematical expressions, or the frequent use of full capitals. A text in German would ideally have a little more lead than the same text in Latin or French, purely because of the increased frequency of capitals. (Robert Bringhurst, 2002 : 37)

We discovered that as increased space was inserted between letters, the words or word groups became graphic in expressou, and that understanding the message was less dependente upon reading than we had supposed. (Wolfgang Weingart, 2012 : 78)

Those books we like to hold in our hands while reading come in a variety of formats, all based on octavo. Even smaller books can be perfect provided they are slim; without effort they can be held for hours in one hand. (Jan Tschichold, 1991 : 54)

Many books show none of the clear proportions, but accidental ones. We do not know why, but we can demonstrate that a human being finds planes of definite and intentional proportions more pleasant or more beautiful than those of accidental proportions. (Jan Tschichold, 1991 : 55)

Our sentes are construções to have very broad capabilities. The more we preserve and sense, the more we learn. The more we learn, the more we preserve. Going on and on in a viciou cycle. (Alessandro Ludovico, 2015 : conference at FBAUL)


Faria, Maria Isabel, e Pericão, Maria da Graça. (2008). Dicionário do Livro: da escrita ao livro electrónico. Coimbra: Almedina.

Tschichold, Jan. (1991). The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. Original edition, 1975.

Landa, Robin. (2011). Graphic Design Solutions, 4th Edition. Nova Pérsia: Kean University.

Armstrong, Hellen. (2009). Graphic Design Theory Reading from the field. Nova Iorque: Princeton Arquitectural Press.

Bringhurst, Robert. (2002). The Elements of Typographic Style. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks, Publishers.