Balance

It is essential to the human condition.
In design, balance acts as a catalyst for form, it anchors and activates elements in space.

Visual balance occours when the weight of one or more elements are distributed evenly and proportionately in space. (Ellen Lupton, 2008)

Disposição harmónica das partes de uma página (títulos, ilustrações, texto, brancos, cores, etc.) no seu conjunto; o equilíbrio pode ser: simétrico (com distribuição de grupos de brancos e manchas em partes iguais nos dois lados da página ou impressão), assimétrico (quando uma das partes está mais sobrecarregada do que a outra, embora mantendo a harmonia) e livre, quando a disposição das manchas e brancos não se sujeita às regras do equilíbrio, mas toma em linha de conta as normas tipográficas de distribuição do texto e brancos. (in Dicionário do Livro)

As partes individuais contribuem para um todo, mas não se tornam o todo. (Steven Bradley)

    Symmetry is balance through similarity.    Elements are oriented along a common axis. A symmetrical design is inherently stable, yet balance does needs not to be static. It implies order and balance. Space is passive 1

    Asymmetry is the creation of order and balance between unlike and unequal elements. Elements are placed organically, relying on the interaction of form and negative space and the proximity of the elements to each other, and to the edges of the field, yielding both tension and balance. Does not look the same in both sides, but the dissimilar halves are in state of equal tension. Space is active 1

1 Space in a symmetrical design is the background. When requiring a central axis, it forces white space to the perimeter of the composition, therefore the space is passive – passive white space is static, it looks motionless and “left over”. Space in a asymmetrical design is or can be in the foreground; the white space is necessarily active, because it is integral to our perception of the positive elements. (Alex White, 2013)

A Simetria tipográfica não existe, o conceito está relacionado com aparência equilibrada da composição – quasi-symmetrical. Esta ideia tem que ver com pontos de atenção e atração da composição/interesse distribuídos irmamente na composição.

“ One should not believe, however, that asymmetrical composition is unconditionally more modern or even absolutely better merely because it is younger (…) asymmetry is in no way simpler or easier to set (…) “ (Jan Tschichold, 1991)

Tschichold, Jan. 1991. The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. Original edition, 1975

Faria, Maria Isabel, e Maria da Graça Pericão. 2008. Dicionário do Livro: da escrita

ao livro electrónico. Coimbra: Almedina

White, Alex. 2013. The Elements of Graphic Design. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

Lupton, Ellen, 2008. Graphic Design : The New Basics


Mafalda Cintra

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