Composition

Acto ou operação de compor linhas e páginas de caracteres, fios e vinhetas, que o tipógrafo junta e combina para a impressão de qualquer trabalho. Operação que consiste em juntar os caracteres metálicos para formar palavras e com estas palavras formar  frases,  para  compor  o  manuscrito  de um autor; compreende dois estádios: a montagem das linhas e a compaginação; Produção literária, cientifica ou artística; Trabalho de compositor tipográfico.¹ (Faria e Perição, 2008)

Is the arrangement of all the elements to make the piece work as a whole. (Moholy-Nagy, 1921)

(…) In order to produce a “good layout” all we need to do is make a pleasing arrangement of miscellaneous elements. (…) At best, this procedure involves the time-consuming uncertainties of trial and error, and at worst, an indifference to plan, order, or discipline. (…) The designer does not, as a rule, begin with some preconceived idea. Rather, the idea is (or should be) the result of careful study and observation, and the design a product of that idea. (Rand, 2014)

The two poles of layout are the text, which is organized around the Reading sequence, and the images, the arrangement of which is determined by compositional considerations derived from picture-making. It is the balance between these two principles that guides the descriptions of the various models of composition. (Haslam, 2006)

Harmony between page size and type area is achieved when both have the same proportions. If efforts are successful to combine page format and type area into an indissoluble unit, then the margin proportions become functions of page format and overall construction and thus are inseparable from either. Margin proportions do not dominate the page of a book. Rather, they arise from the page format and the law of form, the canon. (Tschichold, 1991)

Composition is an aesthetic choice, and not an aim. (Rodchenko, 2003)

The composition is the organized sum of the interior functions of every part of the work.

Expressões formadas de modo idêntico, mas que são elaboradas lentamente, foram reprimidas, examinadas e longamente trabalhadas, a partir dos primeiros esboços, de um modo quase pedante. Dou-lhes o nome de Composições. A inteligência, o consciente, a intenção lúcida, o objectivo preciso desempenham aqui um papel fundamental; em última análise, o que importa não é o cálculo, mas sim a intuição. (Kandinsky, 1911)


Asymmetry is the rhythmic expression of functional design. In addition to being more logical, asymmetry has the advantage that its complete appearance is far more optically effective than symmetry. (Tschichold, 2006)

Falta de simetria: tipograficamente  é  o  arranjo  de  linhas  e  blocos  de  composição fora do eixo ou centro da página que caracteriza grande número de arranjos gráficos  modernos  exigindo,  porém,  um  perfeito equilíbrio entre as diversas partes do impresso. (Faria e Perição, 2008)

Nor is asymmetry in any way better than symmetry; only different. Both arrangements can be good. (…) They each have their own areas and special possibilities. One should not believe, however, that asymmetrical composition is unconditionally more modern or even absolutely better merely because it is younger. Even in the best of cases, asymmetry is in no way simpler or easier to set than symmetry, and to turn up one’s nose at symmetrical typesetting because it seems antiquated is simply a sign of limited maturity. A catalog set asymmetrically may demonstrate military order. In a book set in this fashion, the flow of reading would be disrupted. Asymmetrical letterheads may be better than symmetrical ones, but asymmetrical small advertisements look terrible when they are combined on a page. (…) neither the old style nor a new style matters; quality does. (Tschichold, 1991)

Asymmetric balance creates greater reader interest. Pleasure derived from observing asymmetrical arrangements lies partly in overcoming resistances, which, consciously or not, the spectator adjusts in his own mind. (Rand, 2014)


¹ Ver também conceitos relacionados: Harmonia e Proporção.

² Contradição de época e mentalidade no conceito “composição”.


REFERÊNCIAS

Faria, Maria Isabel; Maria da Graça Pericão. 2008. Dicionário do Livro: da escrita ao livro electrónico. Coimbra: Almedina.

Haslam, Andrew. 2006. Book Design.

Kandinsky, Wassily. 1911. Do Espiritual na Arte, «Arte e Sociedade 8», 5º edição, Lisboa, Publicações D. Quixote, 1 vol.

Marinetti, F. T. 1910. La Cinematografia Futurista.

Moholy-Nagy, László. 1921. Composition #19.

Perloff, Nancy Lynn, Brian M. Reed, and El Lissitzky. 2003. Situating El Lissitzky: Vitebsk, Berlin, Moscow. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute.

Rand, Paul. 2014. Thoughts on Design, San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

Tschichold, Jan. 1991. The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. Original edition, 1975.

Tschichold, Jan. 2006. The Principles of the New Typography. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Carolina Couto
// turma B

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About carolinacouto

Uma aspirante a designer que, de vez em quando, pensa que veio ao mundo para criar história. Tem sede do infinito e sabe lá mais do quê!

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